What is the principle of coronavirus “poisoning”?
2020, a new year, a new spring festival, a new weather, but it is bad by the hateful virus! The New Coronavirus concept has led to an outbreak of influenza in Asia.
According to the World Health Organization (who), coronaviruses are a large group of viruses that can infect birds and mammals, including humans. These viruses are similar to several outbreaks around the world, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic in 2002-2003 and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (mers) epidemic in Korea in 2015. Recently, a New Coronavirus (2019- ncov) broke out in China in December 2019 and attracted international attention.
Why is coronavirus called coronavirus?
Coronavirus is also known as 2019ncov. Coronavirus is named for its sharp protrusions on its surface, which are similar to the tips of a crown. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), all coronaviruses have tips on their outer surfaces that resemble coronal processes. Seven known coronaviruses can infect humans, including New Coronavirus discovered in 2019. Under the sharp appearance of coronavirus, there is a round core, which is wrapped by protein and a “greasy” membrane. The core contains genetic material that the virus can inject into vulnerable cells to infect them. The so-called spike protein extends from the core of the virus to the surface of the virus, enabling the virus to “recognize and lock” specific cells in the body.
How does coronavirus infect humans?
How does coronavirus infect humans? In other words, what is the “detoxification” principle of coronavirus? As mentioned earlier, coronaviruses have a round core surrounded by protein and a “greasy” membrane, which contains genetic material that the virus can inject into vulnerable cells to infect them. The spike protein of the virus extends from the core of the virus to the surface of the virus, enabling the virus to “recognize and lock” specific cells in the body. When the spike (on the host cell) binds to its receptor, a cascade reaction is triggered, leading to the merger of the virus and the cell. This fusion allows the virus to release its genetic material and hijack the cell’s internal mechanisms. When that happens, the virus will take off its shell and turn the cell into a factory for making new viruses.
Origin and transmission of coronavirus
Earlier, experts analyzed that New Coronavirus might start with bats, and then jump to another unknown organism before infecting humans. Some coronaviruses use animals as their main hosts and have evolved to infect humans. Bats are precursors of SARS and mers coronaviruses. The SARS virus spreads from bats to civets (small nocturnal mammals) and then to humans, while the Middle East respiratory syndrome spreads from camels to humans. There is evidence that the New Coronavirus has also been transmitted from bat to humans through the intermediate carrier, although scientists have not yet identified the intermediate carrier of infection. However, since the analysis of large-scale researchers in South China shows that pangolin may be an intermediate host, the similarity of virus genome reaches 99%!
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says the four most common human coronaviruses – 229E, nl63, OC43 and hku1 – are not transmitted from animals to humans, but use humans as their natural hosts. These human transmitted coronaviruses “may have evolved to maximize their transmission in humans rather than pathogenicity”, which means that these viruses may choose to maximize their transmission rather than harm their human hosts. This may explain why animal borne coronaviruses seem to cause more serious diseases in humans, but the idea is still speculative.
Coronavirus can be transmitted from person to person through droplets emitted by an infected person when breathing, coughing or sneezing. A typical surgical mask can’t block the virus particles contained in these droplets, but some simple measures – such as frequent hand washing, disinfection of frequently contacted surfaces and objects, avoiding contact with face, eyes and mouth – can greatly reduce the risk of infection.
The virus usually does not survive for more than a few hours on the outer surface of the human host, but it is precisely in such a short time that once exposed to human beings, it is possible to be infected. Scientists do not know how long the New Coronavirus can survive outside the host.
In humans, coronaviruses usually cause respiratory tract infections with mild to severe flu like symptoms, but the specific symptoms depend on the type of coronavirus. Four common human coronaviruses cause runny nose, headache, cough, sore throat and fever. In a small number of people, including those with cardiopulmonary disease or a weak immune system, viral infections may develop into more severe lower respiratory tract infections, such as pneumonia or bronchitis.
In contrast, severe mers and SARS infections tend to develop into pneumonia. Other symptoms of mers include fever, cough and shortness of breath, while SARS can cause fever, chills and body pain. It is reported that in the early 2000s, the mortality rate of SARS was 9.6%, while the estimated mortality rate of Middle East respiratory syndrome (mers) was 30% to 40%.
The symptoms of New Coronavirus are similar to those of other coronaviruses. Most patients have a fever, cough and dyspnea. Less common symptoms include dizziness, nausea, vomiting and runny nose. As of February 2019, scientists estimated the mortality rate of 2019ncov to be 2%. However, with the development of the situation and effective control in China, the mortality rate will be reduced.
Diagnosis and treatment
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says doctors can detect coronavirus infection by analyzing respiratory tract samples and serum isolated from a patient’s blood. The Centers for Disease Control and prevention of the United States has developed a new equivalent diagnostic test for coronavirus, but its accuracy and specificity are still being verified. According to the center for Disease Control and prevention press conference in January 2019, once confirmed, the diagnostic package will be distributed to medical institutions in the United States and overseas.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says there is no effective treatment for human coronavirus. People who are infected with common coronavirus usually heal themselves and are relieved by taking painkillers and antipyretics, using humidifiers, taking hot baths, drinking lots of fluids, and staying at home. Similar treatments can also help alleviate more severe symptoms of coronavirus infection.
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