The content and scope of TCM oncology

Traditional Chinese medicine oncology is a comprehensive specialty involving internal, external, female, wound, bone and other disciplines. Therefore, the literature on tumor in the past dynasties is also scattered in various diseases. Due to the limitation of historical conditions, the disease name and diagnosis of tumors are usually determined by the diagnosis, so Chinese medicine is more focused on the types of tumors visible on the surface of the body. However, from the related discussion, we have seen that doctors of all ages have observed the tumor symptoms very carefully, and their understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis is very close to western medicine, and there are many treatment methods, which shows that Chinese medicine has made outstanding contributions to tumor.
(1) TCM’s understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of tumor

(1) exogenous Chinese medicine believes that exogenous diseases are one of the factors causing the disease. For example, according to the article “the beginning of a hundred diseases”, “cold is the beginning of life. The inner sutra says, “the cold air is outside the intestine, fighting with the health of the qi, the qi can not camp, because there is a tie, the fetish is inside, the evil spirit is up, polyps are born, its origin is also as big as a chicken egg.” According to the theory of the etiology of various diseases, “the accumulator is Yin and Yang, the incompatibility of Yin and Yang, the weakness of the internal organs, the exposure to the wind, and the struggle against the qi of the heart.” The wind and cold mentioned here all refer to external pathogenic factors. Once the dirty gas is weak and the positive gas is insufficient, it can invade the human body from outside and cause disease.
(2) internal factors

Chinese medicine attaches great importance to the role of mental factors in the pathogenesis, especially in the etiology of tumor. The armature says, “the internal wound is accumulated by worry and anger &hellihelli.” According to the “authentic surgery”, the etiology of lactolith is: “melancholy hurts the liver, thinking about the spleen, thinking about the heart, wishing not to succeed, so that the meridians and collaterals ruffians and become nuclei.” Wang kentang in the “evidence to rule the line,” said: “anger is not stopped, often eat noodles, there is this evidence immediately.” It can be seen from this that Chinese medicine believes that people’s emotional depression will inevitably lead to the imbalance of qi and blood, the obstruction of qi and blood running, the imbalance of functions of the viscera, the stagnation of qi and blood stasis, the blockage of veins, and the gradual accumulation of tumor.

In terms of internal causes, Chinese medicine also attaches great importance to the role of eating disorders in the pathogenesis of tumors. For example, ji sheng fang said, “eating five flavours, fish wake up cheese, strong eating of raw and cold fruits and vegetables, and stopping the storage of epigastric &hellihelli for a long time, is immaculate.” Medical code: “people who drink a lot of hot stuff tend to have phrenia. & rdquoldquo; Many drinkers choke on their phrens, especially those who drink too hot. “Surgery orthodox school” cloud: cocoon lip “because food Fried stir-fry, over dinner char -, and also think about violent anxiety, phlegm with fire line, stay at the lip.” “Health maintenance” : “in all the mountains and waters of the black soil, out of springs, not long to live, often eating people as gall disease, increased disease.” The above discussion is that plain diet is maladjusted and damages the spleen and stomach, thus producing pathological changes such as food stagnation and turbidity of sputum, which leads to stagnation of qi and blood, and causes the basis of tumor production.
(3) physical factors

In the pathogenesis of tumor, Chinese medicine attaches great importance to the physical condition of human beings. The spiritual armature puts forward: “a strong man has no reserve, but an empty man has it.” “The doctor must read” emphasizes: “the accumulation of success, lack of good spirit, and then evil spirit.” According to jingyue quanshu, the evidence of eee phrenee is rare in young people, and it is common for young people to suffer from middle failure and exhaustion. In discussing the occurrence of cancer, the book points out: “over 40 years of age, loss of blood gas, excessive thick taste, 12. All these indicate that the occurrence of cancer syndrome is closely related to the strength of positive qi. Especially over 40 years of age, qi gradually deficiency, spleen and kidney function gradually weakened people. Because kidney is the origin of nature, spleen is the origin of the day after tomorrow, and lack of positive qi is inevitable. It is not only unable to resist the invasion of exogenous pathogens, but also weak functions of the viscera, which may produce pathological factors such as stagnation of qi, blood stasis, turbid sputum and stagnation of heat. This view is similar to western medicine’s view that the occurrence of cancer is due to the decline of the body’s immune function.

Taken together, TCM believes that the onset of tumor factors are various, have foreign wind, cold, dry, wet, heat pathogenic factors, such as a medicial care wrath of modern factors, such as a diet food stagnation of phlegm turbidity pathological factors, particularly important in the elderly the spleen and kidney deficiency, disharmony between Yin and Yang qi of zang-fu organs, unable to rid spread evil and make external pathogenic factors and endogenous pathogenic products want to beat knot, resulting in the occurrence of tumor.
Diagnosis, classification and nomenclature of tumor in TCM

Of traditional Chinese medicine in the diagnosis of tumor mostly based on tumor of symptoms and signs, so in the past dynasties doctor works mainly in the description of some advanced cancer symptoms and signs, but there are some physicians in the long-term clinical practice, found some early tumors, such as “card for remit to fill” pointed out: “small disease also swallow acid, can temporarily not for a long time, or in small illness, or suddenly, this I do not know the choke of diaphragmatic ` nausea gradually also.” The possibility of developing chokephrenic acid into chokephtheria and nausea is related to the chronic treatment of swallowing acid.

The classification of tumors in traditional Chinese medicine is divided into “sinus tumor”, “bone gangrene” and “stone gangrene” according to the lesion site. According to the matching classification of zang-fu organs, for example, “the accumulation of liver is called fei-hellihelli spleen is called ruffian qi &hellihelli lung is called xi Ben”, etc. The zang-fu also, attack sometimes, spread the pain to move.” Some are classified according to pathological properties, such as the cloud in the book of difficult jing: “those who accumulate, also have Yin qi, &hellihelli gather, and also have Yang qi &hellihelli.” Although the above classification is not very accurate, it still has some reference value in diagnosis and guiding treatment.

Because the nomenclature of tumors in traditional Chinese medicine is based on symptoms and signs, the diagnosis is consistent with western medicine for patients with obvious lesions on the surface or symptoms. However, if some lesion sites are deep and the symptoms are not obvious, it may occur that the same TCM disease name contains two or more benign or malignant tumors, or the same cancer tumor may have two or more TCM diseases due to its different manifestations. Examples are as follows:
Chinese medicine oncology with obvious malignant tumor characteristics:
Callus lip: “surgical orthodox” says: “cocoon lip, is yangming stomach meridian disease also. Due to Fried food and stir-fried food, over – dinner barbecue &hellihelli at the beginning knot like beans, growing as a cocoon, swelling hard, even pain; Diet interferes, or breaks the blood stream &hellihelli.” “A small tumor, such as the size of a bean, or the gradual enlargement of a regenerated one, is about an inch thick. . The golden mirror of the medical profession said: “if you break down, you turn over a flower. According to the above discussion, it can be seen that lip cocoon is lip cancer, and its occurrence is related to chronic stimulation such as hot food, smoking, etc., and its development can be divided into different forms such as yangmei, knobs, ganoderma lucidum, etc.
Tongue fungus: the description of tongue bacteria in the golden mirror of the medical school is very detailed: “its disease is the worst, first as bean, second as fungus, small head, also known as tongue fungus. Pain, rottenness, no skin, if lost in the treatment, so that the swelling, such as pan lotus, or the shape of a chicken corona, a shortened tongue, can not stretch, obstructing the diet language, when the saliva, and then because of anger, sudden collapse, bleeding, long extension of the neck, swollen as tuberculosis, hard &mdashmdash; Pain, skin as usual.”

Loss of appearance: “the patient is suffering from multiple raw shoulders, and the skin color of the initial slight swelling remains the same. Half a year, fang sheng Yin pain, qi and blood gradually fade, describe emaciated, tattered purple spot, seepage blood. Or swelling such as lotus, fumigation, day and night do not rest, flat knot in one’s heart, the longer the bigger, more and more hard, this is incurable.” It can be seen that loss of capacity syndrome is a kind of tumor with high degree of malignancy, mostly occurring in the neck and shoulders, similar to malignant lymphoid or metastatic lymphatic lesion.
Lactolith: Chen shigong’s description of lactolith is very detailed. He points out that the occurrence of lactolith is related to “melancholy hurts the liver and thinking about hurting the spleen”. It will swell like a chestnut, or cover like a bowl. The prognosis is poor, and even if treated early, the disease can only be “prolonged”. .
There are also immaculate stones and galls of thyroid cancer, like cervical cancer, and scalp-over hemorrhoids of anorectal cancer.
There are also some Chinese medicine tumor names that may contain both benign and malignant tumors, such as:
Immaculate accumulation of symptoms: “the patient with immaculate conception has a constant origin and pain that is immaculate, consistent from top to bottom, and poor from left to right,” immaculate said. Gather together, the Yang qi also, its beginning hair has no root, fluctuation has no place to stay, its pain impermanence place. ZhuYuan disease theory of hou said: “if the disease is not move, named as. If the disease is any, ears to promoters, called any” suggesting that remove lump together above is refers to the mass of intra-abdominal grew older, the difference lies in the product produced by the mass is fixed do not move, mass produced is a fickle accumulation and dispersion, can be moved up and down, so remove lump accumulation may contain the abdominal cavity of a variety of benign tumors and malignant tumor.
Choking burp: sui chao yuan fang said: “the diet into the choking burp is blocked &hellihelli in the chest pain can not wheeze, can not eat, is the reason for choking.” Zhu danxi said: its haggard in the upper, near under the swallow, water and drink feasible, food difficult to enter, the name of choking. Its haggard under and stomach is close, although the food may enter, the food long to come back, the name is called burp. The description of the above symptoms is similar to that of the late invasion of the surrounding organs of esophageal cancer, while the long-term recurrence of food intake is similar to that of cardiac cancer, pyloric cancer, or pyloric obstruction.
Stomach reaction: synopsis of the golden chamber contains: “the twilight vomit toward the food, the twilight vomit toward the food. The name of the old valley is stomach-turning. According to the characteristics of the above symptoms, it may include pyloric obstruction caused by benign or malignant factors.

Other diseases include intestinal tain, gall tumor and so on. Therefore, it can be seen that the diagnosis, nomenclature and classification of traditional Chinese medicine tumors by doctors in different dynasties are not systematic, but they are rich in contents, which greatly enlighten the research and development of TCM oncology in later generations.

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